Skip to main content
Smart Cities Marketplace
Scalable cities


Triangulum: The Three Point Project / Demonstrate. Disseminate. Replicate.


EU contribution
Total costs
Project type
Lighthouse project
Funding programme
SCC 1 - 2014 Smart Cities and Communities solutions integrating energy, transport, ICT sectors through lighthouse (large scale demonstration - first of the kind) projects


The three point project Triangulum was one of the European Smart Cities and Communities Lighthouse Projects, set to demonstrate, disseminate and replicate solutions and frameworks for Europe’s future smart cities. The flagship cities Manchester (UK), Eindhoven (NL) and Stavanger (NO) served as a testbed for innovative projects focusing on sustainable mobility, energy, ICT and business opportunities.

The project consortium combined interdisciplinary experience and expertise of 22 partners from industry, research and municipalities who share the same objective and commitment to develop and implement smart solutions in order to replicate them in the three follower cities Leipzig (D), Prague (CZ) and Sabadell (ES).

The project was coordinated by Fraunhofer IAO in Stuttgart and supported by Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum. An exceptional feature of the project was the ICT architecture and smart city framework that was developed in the flagship cities and rolled out in the follower cities. A modular approach enabled flexible (business) solutions that address the individual challenges and requirements of our cities and their stakeholders.


Project demonstration sites

Fellow cities


Best Practice: Quadruple helix approach – citizen engagement in Eindhoven

The city of Eindhoven implemented smart city solutions and interventions based on the so called “Quadruple Helix Model” which uses cooperation among universities, enterprises, government, and citizens. The co-creative approach led to development of the thematic roadmaps for topics like the energy, lighting, the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (‘Eindhoven Op Weg!’) and the ICT-Kompas. The city of Bristol also co-designed and created smart and energy efficient solutions with citizens. The engagement of community allowed them to educate and inform about the benefits of energy efficiency and smart measures in their homes.

Impacts and results:

  • Co-creation and citizen engagement contributed to a better understanding of the financial and energy savings that can be achieved by the intervention

  • Co-creative approaches supported the development of smart and energy-efficient solutions.


Mission Statements and Goals:

1. We demonstrated real smart city solutions and facilitated and replicated them in our Follower Cities.

2. We looked beyond subsidies and demonstrated functioning business models and social value models for smart cities.

3. In order to minimise risks for future smart city investments, we demonstrated and tested our approaches making them measurable, traceable and thus “bankable”.

4. We co-created smart cities with our citizens. We involved users in the process of development and improvement of smart city solutions, connecting civil society to ensure that our solutions were demand-driven and contribute towards real life improvement of our cities.

5. We transferred knowledge about smart city implementation. Our approach to delivering smart city technologies and services was based on mutual learning and innovative forms of collaboration between city administrations, private sector corporations, civil society and research institutions.

6. We sought to activate and enable entrepreneurs, SMEs and young talents by creating an attractive eco-system and by co-creating smart districts and associated solutions.

7. We developed and implemented a smart city reference model. By defining a reference architecture for IT-based smart city services and technologies, we enabled future replication and standardised approaches of crosscutting solutions for urban energy, buildings and mobility technologies.

8. Sustainable transformation of existing buildings and demonstration of solutions for a shifting energy demand market was our core proposition for demonstrating data-driven value creation in cities.

9. We built upon the strong replication potential of our follower cities. The Triangulum consortium consisted of six cities and one observer city that are all equally important – Lighthouse, Follower and Observer Cities contribute with their individual strengths to develop and deliver successful smart city solutions.

10. We contributed to and strengthen the European Smart Cities movement. By establishing a strong network including citizens, key stakeholders and enablers such as the European Innovation Partnership and the European Commission, we sought to develop, promote and strengthen European smart city projects and leadership.


Building aspects

  • Building Energy Services
  • heating (only)
  • Installed Renewable Energy Sources
  • photovoltaic
  • Technology used to supply the buildings
  • boiler
  • Technology used to supply the buildings
  • electrical equipment

Energy Carriers

  • Biomass
  • Electricity
  • Geothermal heat

Energy Systems Types

  • Infrastructure & System Integration
  • DHC extension
  • Storage
  • Electrical Storage

Mobility Type of Intervention

  • Vehicles

Thematic Field

  • Energy System(s) Integration
  • Information and Communication Technologies
  • Mobility and Transport
  • New Building(s)


SRT Triangulum Guide Book


Trinidad Fernandez
Fraunhofer IAO