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Triangulum: The Three Point Project / Demonstrate. Disseminate. Replicate.


EU contribution
Total costs
Funding programme
SCC 1 - 2014 Smart Cities and Communities solutions integrating energy, transport, ICT sectors through lighthouse (large scale demonstration - first of the kind) projects


The three point project Triangulum was one of the European Smart Cities and Communities Lighthouse Projects, set to demonstrate, disseminate and replicate solutions and frameworks for Europe’s future smart cities. The flagship cities Manchester (UK), Eindhoven (NL) and Stavanger (NO) served as a testbed for innovative projects focusing on sustainable mobility, energy, ICT and business opportunities.

The project consortium combined interdisciplinary experience and expertise of 22 partners from industry, research and municipalities who share the same objective and commitment to develop and implement smart solutions in order to replicate them in the three follower cities Leipzig (D), Prague (CZ) and Sabadell (ES).

The project was coordinated by Fraunhofer IAO in Stuttgart and supported by Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum. An exceptional feature of the project was the ICT architecture and smart city framework that was developed in the flagship cities and rolled out in the follower cities. A modular approach enabled flexible (business) solutions that address the individual challenges and requirements of our cities and their stakeholders.


Project demonstration sites

Fellow cities


Mission Statements and Goals:

1. We demonstrated real smart city solutions and facilitated and replicated them in our Follower Cities.

2. We looked beyond subsidies and demonstrated functioning business models and social value models for smart cities.

3. In order to minimise risks for future smart city investments, we demonstrated and tested our approaches making them measurable, traceable and thus “bankable”.

4. We co-created smart cities with our citizens. We involved users in the process of development and improvement of smart city solutions, connecting civil society to ensure that our solutions were demand-driven and contribute towards real life improvement of our cities.

5. We transferred knowledge about smart city implementation. Our approach to delivering smart city technologies and services was based on mutual learning and innovative forms of collaboration between city administrations, private sector corporations, civil society and research institutions.

6. We sought to activate and enable entrepreneurs, SMEs and young talents by creating an attractive eco-system and by co-creating smart districts and associated solutions.

7. We developed and implemented a smart city reference model. By defining a reference architecture for IT-based smart city services and technologies, we enabled future replication and standardised approaches of crosscutting solutions for urban energy, buildings and mobility technologies.

8. Sustainable transformation of existing buildings and demonstration of solutions for a shifting energy demand market was our core proposition for demonstrating data-driven value creation in cities.

9. We built upon the strong replication potential of our follower cities. The Triangulum consortium consisted of six cities and one observer city that are all equally important – Lighthouse, Follower and Observer Cities contribute with their individual strengths to develop and deliver successful smart city solutions.

10. We contributed to and strengthen the European Smart Cities movement. By establishing a strong network including citizens, key stakeholders and enablers such as the European Innovation Partnership and the European Commission, we sought to develop, promote and strengthen European smart city projects and leadership.



Trinidad Fernandez
Fraunhofer IAO

Building aspects

  • Building Energy Services
  • Building features
  • Building type
  • Building use
  • Installed Renewable Energy Sources
  • Technology used to supply the buildings

Energy Carriers

  • Waste heat

Energy Systems Types

  • Sustainable Generation
  • Sustainable Generation
  • Waste heat

Mobility Type of Intervention

  • Infrastructure
  • Vehicles

Thematic Field

  • Energy System(s) Integration
  • Information and Communication Technologies
  • Mobility and Transport

ICT aspects

City level
Energy Systems Integration
Mobility and Transport


SRT Triangulum Guide Book
(1.95 MB - PDF)

Project data