Testing and developing new innovations to transform the energy and transport landscape of cities is undoubtedly complex, highlighted by the challenging experiences of the numerous projects nanced by the EU. Once the arduous path of nding a successful new innovative solution is completed, the road is far from over. Innovations in general face a day of reckoning, the moment where the costs of entering the market and upscaling simply cannot be overcome. Lack of venture capital, market failures and other barriers can bring the process to a halt. This is not only a reality for smart city solutions, but because of their nature, the number of barriers are o en far higher than in many other areas of innovation.
SCIS/SCM Policy paper